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Inca Rope bridge
09.11.08 (7:16 pm)   [edit]
Inca Rope bridges were simple suspension bridges over canyons and gorges to present access for the Inca Empire. Bridges of this type were suitable for use since the Inca people did not use wheeled transport - traffic was incomplete to pedestrians and livestock. These bridges were an intrinsic part on the Inca road scheme and are an excellent example of Inca innovation in engineering. They were frequently used by Chasqui runners delivering messages throughout the Inca Empire. The construction of these bridges amounted to a pair of stone anchors on each side of the canyon with immense cables of woven ichu grass linking these two pylons together. Adding to this construction, two additional cables acted as guardrails. The cables which supported the foot-path were unbreakable with plaited branches. This multi-structure system made these bridges strong enough to even carry the Spaniards while riding horses after they indoors. However, these massive bridges were so heavy that they tended to sag in the middle, and this caused them to bend in high winds.

 
Gear
07.21.08 (6:02 am)   [edit]
A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device possibly another gear wheel so that force can be transmitted between the two strategies in a direction tangential to their surfaces. A non-toothed wheel can transmit some tangential force but will slip if the force is large; teeth put off slippage and permit the transmission of large forces. A gear can mesh with any device having teeth friendly with the gear's teeth. Such devices include racks and other non-rotating policy; however, the most common condition is for a gear to be in mesh with another gear. In this case revolution of one of the gears necessarily causes the other gear to rotate. In this way, rotational motion can be transferred from one position to another. While gears are sometimes used simply for this reason to transmit rotation to another shaft perhaps their most significant feature is that, if the gears are of asymmetrical sizes, a mechanical advantage is also achieved, so that the rotational speed, and torque, of the second gear are dissimilar from that of the first. In this way, gears provide a means of increasing or decreasing a turning speed, or a torque.

 
University
07.09.08 (10:47 am)   [edit]
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants intellectual degrees at all, levels in a selection of subjects. A university provides together tertiary and quaternary education. The word university is resultant from the Latin universities magistrorum ET scholarium, roughly importance community of teachers and scholars. The funding and organization of universities is very different in different countries around the world. In some countries universities are primarily funded by the state, while in others funding may come from donors or from fees which students’ presence the university must pay. In some countries the vast majority of students attends university in their local town, while in other countries universities attract students from all over the world, and may provide university space for their students. The Carnegie Basic Classification system distinguishes between institutions on the basis of the prevalence of degrees they grant. As the names of their categories designate names indicate, the Carnegie Foundation considers the granting of master's degrees necessary, though not sufficient, for an institution to be classified as a university.

 
Earth
05.29.08 (7:23 am)   [edit]
Earth is the fifth largest planet in the solar system, third in order of distance from the Sun. It is the largest of its planetary system's terrestrial planets and the only place in the universe known to support life.

The most prominent features of the earth's climate are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region. Precipitation patterns vary widely according to location, ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. About 70 percent of the surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with the vast majority of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere.

Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several tectonic plates that gradually migrate across the surface over geologic time spans, which at least several times have changed relatively quickly. The interior of the planet remains active, with a thick layer of molten Earth mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field

 
Education
05.13.08 (9:34 am)   [edit]
Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation. Education mean 'to draw out', are facilitating realization of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.

The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than doe’s formal schooling. Family members may have a profound educational effect often more profound than they realize though family teaching may function very informally.

 
Guitar
09.03.07 (1:24 am)   [edit]
Guitar The guitar is a musical instrument with very old roots, used in a wide range of musical styles, and it is also a solo classical instrument. It is predictable as one of the primary instruments in blues, country, flamenco, rock music and many forms of pop. The guitar generally has six strings, but four, seven, eight, ten, and twelve string guitars also exist. Guitars are made and repair by luthiers. Guitars may be played acoustically or they may rely on an amplifier that usually allows for electronic manipulation of tone. The electric guitar was introduced in the 20th century and continues to have a profound influence on popular culture. Electric guitars Electric guitars can have solid, semi-hollow, or hollow body, and create little sound without amplification. Electromagnetic pickups convert the shaking of the steel strings into electrical signals which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio transmitter. The sound is frequently modified by other electronic policy or the natural distortion of valves in the amplifier. There are two main types of pickup: single coil and double coil, each of which can be passive or active. The electric guitar is used extensively in jazz, blues and rock and roll, and was commercialized by Gibson together with Les Paul and independently by Leo Fender of Fender Music. The inferior fretboard action and its electrical amplification lend the electric guitar to some techniques which are less frequently used on acoustic guitars. These techniques include tapping, extensive use of legato through pull-offs and hammer-ones (also known as slurs in the traditional Classical genre), pinch harmonics, volume swells and use of a Tremolo arm or effects pedals. Seven-string solid body electric guitars were developed in the 1980s. right through the late 80's and 90's the seven strings was popularized by the creation of the Ibanez Jem. The Jem was developed by Ibanez with close specifications and a specific feel that Steve Vai helped develop and master. Vai popularized the seven string and the seven string is heard in much of the rock music these days (earlier in jazz) to achieve a much darker sound through extending the lower end of the guitar's range. They are used today by players such as James "Munky" Shaffer, Dave Weiner, John Petrucci, Jeff Loomis, Steve Smyth, and Steve Vai. Meshuggah, Dino Cazares, Rusty Cooley & Charlie Hunter go a step further, using an 8 string guitar with two extra low strings. Although the most commonly found 7 string is the variety in which there is one low B string, Roger McGuinn (Of Byrds/Rickenbacker Fame) has popularized a variety in which an octave G string is paired with the regular G string as on a 12 string guitar, allowing him to incorporate chiming 12 string elements in standard 6 string playing. Ibanez makes many varieties of electric 7 strings. However, the most common method of achieving a darker, deeper sound is to tune the 6th string (E) to a low D, known as a 'drop D tuning'. Many of today's 'Dark Metal' and 'Nu Metal' bands use this tuning to add extra heaviness to their sound. Devin Townsend uses an 'open G' tuning to achieve his particular heavy sound. Eddie Van Halen sometimes uses a device known as a 'D Tuna,' the patent for which he owns. It is a small lever, attached to the fine tuner of the 6th string on a Floyd Rose tremolo, which allows him to easily drop that string's tuning to a D. The electric bass guitar is similar in tuning to the traditional double bass viol. Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. There are also more exotic varieties, such as guitars with two or three[7] necks, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), 5.1 surround guitar, and such. Some electric guitar and electric bass guitar models feature piezoelectric pickups, which function as small microphones to provide a sound closer to that of an acoustic guitar with the flip of a switch or knob, rather than switching guitars.

 
Environmentalism
08.27.07 (12:24 am)   [edit]
Environmentalism Environmentalism is a apprehension for the preservation, restoration, or development of the natural environment, such as the conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and certain land use actions. The study of practical environmentalism is split into two positions I. The mainstream ‘anthropocentric’ or hierarchic, II. The more radical ‘ecocentric’ or egalitarian. The term environmentalism is associated with other modern terms such as greening, environmental management, resource efficiency and waste minimization, and environmental responsibility, ethics and justice. History Environmentalism has its pedigree in the mid to late 19th Century United States with persons such as John Muir and Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau was interested in peoples' relationship with nature and studied this by livelihood close to nature in a simple life. He in print his experiences in the book Walden, which argues that people should turn into intimately close with nature. Muir came to accept as true in nature's innate right, especially after spending time hiking in Yosemite Valley and studying both the ecology and geology. He fruitfully lobbied congress to form Yosemite National Park and went on to set up the Sierra Club. The environmentalist philosophies as well as the belief in an inherent right of nature were to become the bedrock of modern environmentalism. In the 20th century environmental ideas continued to grow in popularity and recognition. Efforts were starting to be made to save some wildlife, particularly the American Bison. The death of the last Passenger Pigeon as well as the endangerment of the American Bison helped to focus the minds of conservationists and popularize their concerns. In 1979 former NASA scientist James Lovelock published Gaia: A new look at life on Earth, which put forth the Gaia Hypothesis, that life on Earth can be unstated as a single mortal. This became an vital part of the Deep Green ideology. The whole time the rest of the history of environmentalism there has been debate and row between more radical followers of this deep immature ideology and mainstream faction. Environmentalism has also changed to deal with new issues such as global warming and genetic engineering. Popular environmentalism Environmentalist action has freshly led to the development of a new subculture. It is mainly composed of the knowledgeable upper-class. These environmentally alert types take special pride in their sustainable consumption patterns, shopping at grocery stores that boast earth-friendliness with buying top-dollar organic products. Some environmentalists grumble that this group of elites are shopping under the banner of environmentalism without espouse any of its true ideals. Because organic and sustainable products are often more cheap, purchasing them has become a mark of wealth. In another form of pretension, the young and single have gone so far as to even begin labeling themselves 'ecosexual'. Closely akin to the concept of the suave metrosexual, the ecosexual seeks out mates who share their environmentalist ideals. Thus, ecology is not just about nature anymore-- it's about social acquaintances.

 
Tamil language
08.24.07 (1:21 am)   [edit]
Tamil language Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. It is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and also has official status in Sri Lanka and Singapore. With more than 77 million speakers, Tamil is one of the more widely spoken languages in the world. Tamil has a literary tradition of more than two thousand years. The earliest epigraphic records found date to around 300 BCE and the Tolkappiyam, oldest known literary work in Tamil, has been dated variously between 300 BCE and 500 CE. Tamil was declared a classical language of India by the Government of India in 2004 and was the first Indian language to have been accorded the status. Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories. Unlike other Dravidian languages, the metalanguage of Tamil, the language used to describe the technical linguistic terms of the language and its structure, is also Tamil. According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies. History Tamil is one of the ancient languages of the world with a history of over 3000 years and literary work dating to over 2000 years ago. The origins of Tamil are not transparent, but it developed and flourished in India as an independent language with a rich literature. More than 55% of epigraphical inscriptions in India were found in Tamil language Unlike in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh where early inscriptions were written in Sanskrit, the early inscriptions in Tamil Nadu used Tamil exclusively. Tamil has the oldest extant literature amongst the Dravidian languages, but dating the language and the literature precisely is difficult. Literary works in India were preserved either in palm leaf manuscripts or through oral transmission, making direct dating impossible. External chronological records and internal linguistic evidence, however, indicate that the oldest extant works were probably compiled sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 10th century CE.

 
Tomato
08.16.07 (11:12 pm)   [edit]
Tomato Tomato plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, as are its close cousins tobacco, chili peppers, potato, and eggplant, which is native to Central, South, and southern North America from Mexico to Peru. It is a perennial plant, often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual plant, typically reaching to 1–3 m (3 to 10 feet) in tallness, with a weak, woody stem that often vines over other plants. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, pinnate, with 5–9 leaflets, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. The flowers are 1–2 cm across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. The utterance tomato derives from a word in the Nahuatl language, tomato. The specific name, lycopersicum, means "wolf-peach" According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America, the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten before the Spanish arrived. Other researchers, however, have pointed out that this is not conclusive, as many other fruits in continuous cultivation in Peru are not present in the very limited historical record. Much horticultural knowledge was lost after the arrival of Europeans. There is a competing theory that says the tomato, like the word "tomato", originated in Mexico, where one of the two apparently oldest "wild" types grows. It is entirely possible that domestication even arose in both regions independently. In any case, by some means the tomato migrated to Central America. Maya and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking, and it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas, by the 16th century. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of forecast. The large, lumpy tomato, a mutation from a smoother, smaller fruit, originated and was encouraged in Central America. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. Two modern tomato cultivar groups, one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato, the other by currant tomatoes, and both originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently resident to eastern Mexico.

 
Capacitors as memory
08.13.07 (1:03 am)   [edit]
Capacitors as memory Capacitors can be charged, and when they are charged they can be discharged. When charged they act like a source of voltage but only for a limited time unless they are "refreshed”. If charged they can be "refreshed" by charging them again and again to keep their voltage above a specified minimum. This procedure can be quite automatic at regular intervals and applies only to capacitors that already have a voltage that is above that set minimum. ”Writing" into a capacitor-memory means either charging that capacitor or discharging it as required. We say that a memory is "a zero" if its voltage is below a specified value, and it is "a one" if above. Putting a 1 into the memory means charging the capacitor, while putting a 0 into the memory means discharging the capacitor. ”Reading" a capacitor-memory is equivalent to putting a voltmeter across its terminals to see whether its voltage is or is not above a given minimum. Memorandum: Modern memories us

 
C++
08.06.07 (11:45 pm)   [edit]
C++ There are a number of good reasons to document your code, and a number of aspects of it that can be documented. Documentation provides you with a shortcut for obtaining an overview of the system or for understanding the code that provides a fastidious feature. Why? The idea of comments is to clarify and clarify the source code to anyone examining it. Good comment conventions are important to any non-trivial agenda so that a person reading the code can understand what it is expected to do and to make it easy to follow on the rest of the code 1) Certification of programming is essential when programming not just in C++, but in any programming language. Many companies have moved away from the idea of "hero programmers" to a concept of groups of programmers working in a team. Many times programmers will only be working on small parts of a larger project. Even if you are not programming for a living or for a company, documentation of your code is still essential. Though many programs can be completed in a few hours, more complex programs can take longer time to complete (days, weeks, etc.). In this case, documentation is essential because: I. You may not be able to work on your project in one sitting; II. It provides a reference to what was changed the last time you programmed; III. It allows you to record why you made the decisions you did, including why you chose not to explore certain solutions; IV. It can provide a place to document known limitations and bugs; V. It allows easy searching and referencing within the program;

 
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
06.15.07 (3:39 am)   [edit]
P. Thiyagarayar, Dr Natesanar and few others formed the South Indian Liberal Federation in 1916 which grew into the Justice Party. The Justice Party came to power in the first General Elections to Madras Presidency in 1920. It introduced Reservation in India for the first time in 1921. Justice Party stood for social justice and equality for all sections of society. It introduced the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowment Act which took control of Hindu temples from end to the age-old monopoly and exploitation of the Upper Caste hereditary priests, open temples to all castes and abolish the Devadasi system. The social reforms of the Justice Party were opposed by the Congress, and Periyar, though a leader in the Indian National Congress supported the Justice Party. He later quit the Congress party. In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress under Rajaji formed the government under the leadership of Rajaji. Rajaji introduced Hindi as a compulsory subject leading to the anti-Hindi agitations being led by Sir A. D. Panneerselvam and Periyar and a few people were killed in the anti-Hindi agitations. Periyar was jailed for two years and in jail he was elected President of the Justice Party in 1938. Formation of DMK Annadurai on September 17, 1949 in a rainy day along with V. R. Nedunchezhiyan,K.A.Mathialagan,K. Anbazhagan,E.V.K. Sampath and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram in Chennai announced the formation of the DMK. M.Karunanidhi joined the DMK a few months later. The DMK carried on the principles and aims of the Justice Party and Dravidar Kazhagam.The movement was initially mooted as one that championed the cause of socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society. The movement was sympathetic to the claim that there were two separate races in India, the Aryans and Dravidians, and the movement claimed to represent the latter.DMK has stands for upliftment of the socally backward classes in HinduSociety like the earlier Justice Party it has been firmly in favour of reservation for the backward classes and has increased reservation up to 69% the highest in the country. DMK along with Periyar forced the withdrawal of the Kula Kalvi Thittam of Rajaji where schools will work in the morning and students had to compulsorily learn the family vocation in the afternoon. Shivaji Ganesan was a member of the DMK he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Parasakthi. He joined the Congress Party in 1955 whereas MGR was a member of the Congress Party till 1953 and he used to wear kathar and wear vibhuti on his forehead. In 1953 MGR joined the DMK popularised the party flag and symbol by showing it in his movies.Annadurai wanted a separate Dravida Nadu which he gave after 1962 China War. The Anti-Hindi agitations of 1965, forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi as the only official language of the country. The brutal killing of over 500 unarmed protesters and students by the Security forces led to anger against the Congress and they were defeated in 1967 never to win an Tamil Nadu assembly election again. DMK came to power in 1967.

 
Dieting
12.20.06 (10:26 pm)   [edit]
Dieting is the practice of eating and drinking in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular, short-term objective.This is distinct from the more basic concept of diet, which addresses tie longer-term and more generic habit of nutritional consumption. For example, a vegan eats a diet completely without animal products, including milk; but while this is a diet, it is not dieting.The most common objective of dieting is loss of excess body fat. Some dieting is prescribed to achieve particular medical objectives, such as sodium-free diets, bland diets and soft food diets, while some dieting is actually designed to increase body fat and/or muscle weight gain. Weight-loss diets restrict the intake of specific foods, or food in general, to reduce body weight. What works to reduce body weight for one person will not necessarily work for another, due to metabolic differences and lifestyle factors. Also, it's important to note that short-term dieting does not necessarily lead to weight loss in the long term. Reducing the body's food supply causes it to stockpile excess fat as a starvation response once normal eating is resumed - meaning crash dieting leads to small short-term weight loss, then an increase in weight shortly afterwards.

 
Mental health
11.29.06 (8:58 pm)   [edit]
Mental health is a concept that refers to a human individual's emotional and psychological well-being. Merriam-Webster defines mental health as "A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life." According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is no one "official" definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how "mental health" is defined. In general, most experts agree that "mental health" and "mental illness" are not opposites. In other words, the absence of a recognized mental disorder is not necessarily an indicator of mental health.

 
Motor transport
11.09.06 (6:57 pm)   [edit]
Public transport is the most significant form of motor transport on Earth. Whilst in the Western World private cars rule, in meager countries (which symbolize the greater part of human population) most people cannot pay for a private car (or in dense urban areas the cost for parking), so walking, (motor) cycling or public transport are frequently the only options, with only the latter being viable for better distances. This frequently takes the form of mini-buses (jitneys) that might go after fixed routes but are typically flexible, including the option of taxi-style door-to-door transportation. Public transport could be faster than other modes of journey where a separate transportation is used and thus much higher speeds are probable than are acceptable on roads. Prime examples are in cities where road congestion can be avoided (metro), and for long chilliness travel (trains). On roads this is also likely if the public transportation has its own part lanes. However, in fact the lanes are frequently shared, in which case public transport on roads is usually slower due to the (frequent) stops and changeovers. Additionally, public transport system might be weakly developed and thus can take up to two or might even three times longer than an equivalent trip in a private vehicle.

 
Extra-planetary weather
09.05.06 (6:04 am)   [edit]
Weather is not partial to just planetary bodies, however. A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the solar system, known as the solar wind. Inconsistencies in this wind and larger events on the surface of the star, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, form a system that has features analogous to conventional weather systems i.e. pressure and wind, and though not true weather, is usually known as space weather. The activity of this system can affect planetary atmospheres and occasionally surfaces. The interface of the solar wind with the terrestrial atmosphere can produce spectacular aurorae, but can play havoc with electrically sensitive systems such as electricity grids and radio signals.

 
Early Stages of a pregnant woman and her health
07.31.06 (10:39 pm)   [edit]
Pregnancy is not an easy job for a woman. Starting from conception to birth, a woman's body carries out the most miraculous process of fertilization, implantation and the maturity and growth of her baby (or babies). Her body is her baby's dwelling place for the next nine months (or around 40 weeks) and the occurrences of pregnancy turn into a journey of many new physical feelings. Whether it is first, second, third (or more) pregnancy, her body will respond in a different way to each individual pregnancy. So health of a pregnant woman is very important to be taken care of. Throughout the first 12 weeks of pregnancy called the '1st trimester’, a woman's body adjust to present a fostering and protective environment for her baby to grow and develop. Seldom, the early signs of pregnancy can make a woman feel puzzled. This may be for the reason that many of the physical signs of in the early hours of pregnancy such as enlarged tender breasts, sensitivity of tiredness, overstuffed and perhaps experiencing spasms and/or pelvic uneasiness can be considered as normal pre-menstrual signs. In all these stages the health of the woman declines because she is not only feeding herself, also her little developing fetus. They may also sense disgusted or sick, due to morning sickness. It is not unusual to feel unsure about what is 'normal' during the early stages of pregnancy development, and unfamiliar signs or sensations may trigger concerns about the health, of her and baby. It’s been proved by the Gynecologists that every woman's body will react in a different way to being pregnant. Many women find their early pregnancy symptoms very difficult to cope with, both at work and generally. Due to continuous vomiting and nourishing the fetus the pregnant woman may be exhausted very easily. She has to constantly keep her energetic by maintaining a healthy diet schedule as prescribed by the physicians. She can have more fresh green vegetables and fruit juices to make her feel fresh and energetic. It’s always significant to make sure that she avoids drinking and smoking because whatever she has will be directly absorbed by the baby. Once the fetus starts developing she has to get primed for all the obstacles she has to experience throughout pregnancy. Many psychologists predict that a healthy pregnancy is not only from taking care of the nutrition for the pregnant women, more than that she has to be taken care from all the hassles in her family. It’s the duty of a loving husband to caress her comfortably and keep her happy always throughout the gestation period. This will not only make the woman feel happy and hopeful it will directly lead to the good development of the fetus.

 
Harvest
12.22.05 (2:32 am)   [edit]

In agriculture, 'harvesting' is the process of gathering mature crops from the fields. Reaping is the harvesting of grain crops. The harvest marks the end of the growing season, or the growing cycle for a particular crop. Harvesting also encompasses the immediate post-harvest handling, including all of the actions taken from physically removing the crop, sorting, cleaning and packing, and either storing, or shipping it to the wholesale or consumer market.

Harvest timing is a critical decision, that balances the likely weather conditions with the degree of crop maturity. Weather events like frost, and unseasonably warm or cold periods, affect yield and quality for each individual crop. An earlier harvest date may avoid damaging conditions, but result in poorer yield and quality. Delaying harvest may allow for a better harvest, but increases the chance of weather problems. Timing of the harvest often involves a significant degree of risk and gambling.

On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large, mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, like the combine harvester.

'Harvest' commonly refers to grain and produce, but is used in reference to fish and timber.



 
Aquaculture
12.22.05 (2:25 am)   [edit]

'Aquaculture' is the cultivation of the natural produce of water (such as fish or shellfish, algae and other aquatic plants). Mariculture is specifically marine aquaculture, and thus is a subset of aquaculture. Some examples of aquaculture include raising catfish and tilapia in freshwater ponds, growing cultured pearls, and farming salmon in net-pens set out in a bay. Fish farming is a common kind of aquaculture. When the waters lowered after river floods some fishes, namely carps, were held in artificial lakes. Their brood were later fed using nymphs and feces from silkworms used for silk production.

The Romans were quite adept in breeding fish in ponds. In Europe it became common again in monasteries during the Middle Ages, since fish was scarce and thus expensive. The 19th century's transportation improvements made fish easily available and inexpensive, even far from the seas, causing a decline in aquaculture.

The current boom started in the 1960s after overfishing caused another price rise. Today, commercial aquaculture exists on a huge scale previously unknown, causing controversy because of its effects on the public waters beyond the boundaries of the pens.

Aquaculture has been one of the fastest growing segments of global food production in recent decades, and has been hailed as an answer to declining wild fish stocks caused largely by overfishing.

Tuna farming in Australia, as well as of other species, has had immense success.

Salmon farming in the Tenth Region of Chile has, for the first time, brought a stable (yet not sustainable) industry to many depressed backwater towns and started a cash flow; previously, the only employment options had been leaving home, relying on the government, subsistence farming, or fishing.

In an unusual arrangement in Hawaii in the United States, aquaculture is carried out with various combinations of Deep Ocean Water (DOW), and Surface Ocean Water (SOW) which is drawn to the surface by the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii as part of research into OTEC renewable energy. This allows fish which require clean cold water to be raised on shore in water drawn from the ocean depths., Canada, Norway, and Chile, salmon and trout farming are one of the fastest-growing forms of agriculture. Salmon farming is not increasing in the United States because of heavy competition from other countries, and higher environmental standards for fish farms in the US. Salmon farming, like other food producing operations such as beef, wheat or tomatoes can impact the environment.

However, the difference between shore farming and fish farming is that shore farming takes place on private land, while fish farming often takes place on the public waters. Organic wastes from fish cages can have a significant effect on water quality and the population structure of organisms, beyond the boundaries of the fish pens, increasing the occurrence of toxic algal blooms. Algal blooms can cause the death of huge numbers of wild fish and other species, and great harm to wild fisheries. Salmon aquaculture has come under increasing scrutiny from environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGO's). In Canada, salmon farming sites occupy a small portion of the coastal zone areas where they are located. The total area occupied by Canadian salmon farms in British Columbia and the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick is about 8,900 acres (36 km²) which is less than 0. Still, even though salmon farms occupy only a small percentage of the public waters, scientists have found a significant degradation of the areas where they exist, with lowered oxygen levels, replacement of native seaweeds with invasive seaweeds, increased algal blooms, reduction of wild species, and loss of nursery habitat for wild fish.

Wild Pacific and Atlantic salmon stocks have seen significant declines over the last several decades, before salmon farming operations started. These declines were caused by a combination of factors including climate change, overfishing and freshwater habitat destruction. However, rivers with fish farms have experienced accelerated decline of wild stocks caused by spread of diseases such as infectious salmon anemia, and parasites such as sea lice from farmed to wild salmon.

Concerns have been raised on the East coast that wild Atlantic salmon may interbreed with and catch disease from salmon that escape from farms. Canadian salmon farmers have significantly reduced the escape of their salmon. The evidence shows that the escape of farmed salmon on Canada's west coast poses low risk to Pacific salmon. However, young wild salmon swimming down river to the ocean are free of sea lice parasites before they swim past the salmon farms, and laden with sea lice after they pass the farms.

Many farmed fish species are carnivorous, meaning that other wild fish species must be harvested to maintain the fish farm. For example, herring are used to make salmon feed. Since herring are the backbone of the North Atlantic food chain, increased fishing pressure on their numbers is a serious threat to all other fish species which depend on herring for food. It is argued that fish farms, far from removing the pressure on wild fish stocks, increase it. Others argue that it takes less fish (in the form of the fishmeal component of an aquaculture diet) to produce a unit of table fish through aquaculture than through the natural food web. Fisheries that are based on species lower on the trophic web (such as many species used for fishmeal) are also more resistent to overfishing than typical table fish fisheries.

The fish farm industry is trying to decrease its reliance on fish for fish feed. A portion of the fish meal used in fish feeds comes from the trimmings and discards of commercial species. More studies are being done concerning shifts in feed composition using poultry and vegetable oils as substitutes for fish protein & oil. This use of land based feeds in turn may result in a decrease of the Omega 3 fish oils in the farmed fish.



 
Disease resistance in fruit and vegetables
12.22.05 (2:19 am)   [edit]

'Disease resistance in fruit and vegetables'; There are a number of lines of defence against pests (that is, those animals that cause damage to the plants we grow) and diseases in the organic garden, principle among these being the practice of good husbandry, creating healthy soil and ensuring high standards of garden hygiene. But no matter how diverse and healthy the garden eco-system may be, there will always be a degree of disease and pest presence. In many ways, some level of pathogen population in the garden can be not only acceptable but desirable as they are indicative of a generally healthful and diverse environment, and add to the overall robustness of the system as an immunity to such detrimental influences will build up, particularly in a balanced polycultural regime. Indeed, most of the plants we grow will tend to be selected because they are trouble free, and those that are more susceptible to attack will have fallen by the wayside over time. However, most farmers find it unacceptable that the food crops they grow are damaged by pests. Generally this has involved finding suitable genetic material amongst existing stocks or in the wild, which is then incorporated into commercial varieties.

In the case of apples, in which research is being carried out in order to develop resistance to diseases such as black spot ('Venturia inaequalis'), powdery mildew ('Podosphaera leucotricha'), orchard fireblight ('Erwinia amylovora'), woolly apple aphid ('Eriosoma lanigerum') and collar rot ('Phytophthora cactorum'), the main sources of resistant material used in breeding programmes such as those being run by East Malling in England or Hortresearch in New Zealand are major gene resistance’s derived from crab-apples. The Vf gene for black spot resistance is derived from the ornamental crab-apple species 'Malus floribunda'. Most black spot resistant cultivars developed around the world carry this gene, but there are some selections that carry the Vr (from M. micromalus) gene. Major gene resistance’s to powdery mildew are derived from M. zumi (Pl2), and the apple cultivar 'Northern Spy' has a long-standing reputation for its major gene resistance to woolly apple aphid. Much later it was shown that the cultivar was also very resistant to collar rot and a useful breeding parent for this resistance.

Some plants can tolerate the presence of large numbers of insects without being severely affected. Other varieties are less attractive to pests, but this can be difficult to sustain or demonstrate. In some cases this can actually make the plants immune to attack, as is the case with the lettuces 'Avoncrisp' and 'Avondefiance' which were bred at the Institute of Horticultural Research, Wellsbourne during the 1960s, which are fully resistant to lettuce root aphid ('Pemphigus bursarius'). For several of the most damaging plant diseases, such as Potato blight ('Phytophthora infestans') and white rot ('Sclerotic cepivorum') of the Allium family, no acceptable resistant cultivars are yet available.

In general it is probably fair to say that resistance will not fully guarantee total crop protection, but choosing resistant varieties should rather be considered as a part of an overall integrated control strategy, especially against virus diseases. In particular they can be especially useful where the threat from specific pests and diseases is high.



 
Hawk
09.14.05 (6:04 am)   [edit]

The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses:


Strictly, to mean any of the species in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. The widespread Accipiter genus includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, the Sharp-shinned Hawk and others. They are mainly woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. They usually have long tails and high visual acuity.
More generally, to mean small to medium-sized birds that are members of the Accipitridae, the family which includes the true hawks (Accipiters) and also eagles, kites, harriers, buzzards, and Old World vultures.
Loosely, to mean almost any bird of prey.
The common names of birds in various parts of the world often use hawk loosely. For example, in North America, the buzzards (Buteo) are often called "hawks".


The true hawks form the sub-family Accipitrinae and most are in the genus Accipiter.


In February 2005 the Canadian scientist Dr Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian IQ in terms of their innovation in feeding habits. Hawks were named among the most intelligent birds based on this scale.


Species
ORDER FALCONIFORMES
Family Accipitridae
Subfamily Elaninae
Subfamily Milvinae
Subfamily Accipitrinae
Genus Accipiter
Goshawk, A. gentilis
Sparrowhawk, A. nisus
Grey-bellied Goshawk, A. poliogaster
Crested Goshawk, A. trivirgatus
Sulawesi Goshawk, A. griseiceps
Red-chested Goshawk, A. toussenelii
African Goshawk, A. tachiro
Chinese Goshawk, A. soloensis
Frances' Goshawk, A. francesii
Spot-tailed Goshawk, A. trinotatus
Grey Goshawk, A. novaehollandiae
Brown Goshawk, A. fasciatus
Black-mantled Goshawk, A. melanochlamys
Pied Goshawk, A. albogularis
Fiji Goshawk, A. rufitorques
White-bellied Goshawk, A. haplochrous
Moluccan Goshawk, A. henicogrammus
Grey-headed Goshawk, A. poliocephalus
New Britain Goshawk, A. princeps
Black Goshawk, A. melanoleucus
Henst's Goshawk, A. henstii
Meyer's Goshawk, A. meyerianus
Chestnut-flanked Sparrowhawk, A. castanilius
Nicobar Sparrowhawk, A. butleri
Levant Sparrowhawk, A. brevipes
Slaty-mantled Sparrowhawk, A. luteoschistaceus
Imitator Sparrowhawk, A. imitator
Red-thighed Sparrowhawk, A. erythropus
Little Sparrowhawk, A. minullus
Japanese Sparrowhawk, A. gularis
Small Sparrowhawk, A. nanus
Rufous-necked Sparrowhawk, A. erythrauchen
Collared Sparrowhawk, A. cirrocephalus
New Britain Sparrowhawk, A. brachyurus
Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk, A. rhodogaster
Madagascar Sparrowhawk, A. madagascariensis
Ovampo Sparrowhawk, A. ovampensis
Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk, A. rufiventris
Shikra, A. badius
Tiny Hawk, A. superciliosus
Semicollared Hawk, A. collaris
Sharp-shinned Hawk, A. striatus
White-breasted Hawk, A. chionogaster
Plain-breasted Hawk, A. ventralis
Rufous-thighed Hawk, A. erythronemius
Cooper's Hawk, A. cooperii
Gundlach's Hawk, A. gundlachi
Bicoloured Hawk, A. bicolor
Besra, A. virgatus
Genus Micronisus
Gabar Goshawk, M. gabar
Genus Melierax
Dark Chanting Goshawk, M. metabates
Eastern Chanting Goshawk, M. poliopterus
Pale Chanting Goshawk, M. canorus
Genus Urotriorchis
Long-tailed Hawk, U. macrourus
Genus Erythrotriorchis
Red Goshawk, E. radiatus
Chestnut-shouldered Goshawk, E. buergersi
Genus Megatriorchis
Doria's Goshawk, M. doriae
Subfamily Buteoninae
Subfamily Aegypiinae: Old World vultures
Subfamily Circinae: harriers
Subfamily Circaetinae: snake-eagles


 



 
Many hobbyists at the time tried to design their own systems, with various degrees of success, and s
02.25.05 (10:05 pm)   [edit]

Many hobbyists at the time tried to design their own systems, with various degrees of success, and sometimes banded together to ease the job. Out of these house meetings the Homebrew Computer Club developed, where hobbyists met to talk about what they had done, exchange schematics and software and show off their systems.


At the same time, those same hobbyists were also interested in something ready-built that the average person could afford. Steve Wozniak, a regular visitor to Homebrew Computer Club meetings, designed the Apple I, a single-board computer. With specifications in hand and an order for 100 machines at $500 each from the Byte Shop, he and Steve Jobs got their start in business. In a photograph of the Apple I board, the upper two rows are a video terminal and the lower two rows are the computer. The MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor in the white package sits on the lower right. About 200 of the machines sold before the company announced the Apple II as a complete computer. The Apple II was one of three personal computers launched in 1977. Despite its higher price, it quickly pulled away from the other two, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, to lead the pack in the late 70s and to become the symbol of the personal computing phenomenon.


Unlike the TRS-80, the Apple II was of high quality and featured a number of technical advantages. It had an open architecture, used color graphics, and most importantly, had an elegantly designed interface to a floppy disk drive, something only mainframes and minis had used for storage until then.


 



 
hillary
12.02.04 (10:04 pm)   [edit]

Hillary Rodham was raised in Park Ridge, Illinois. She graduated from Wellesley College, where she initially served as President of the College Republicans. She switched parties after attending the Wellesley in Washington program at the urging of Professor Alan Schechter, and wrote her thesis on leftist organizer Saul Alinsky. She then attended Yale University Law School, where she met her future husband. Following law school she joined the legal staff advising the Judiciary Committee of the United States House of Representatives, serving the committee during the Watergate scandal and while the committee adopted the articles of impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon. It was at this time that she made the acquaintance of Bernard Nussbaum, future White House Counsel for President Clinton.


Following her service to the Judiciary Committee, she departed for Arkansas, where in 1975 she joined the faculty of the University of Arkansas Law School, and married Bill Clinton.


In 1976 Bill Clinton was elected Arkansas State Attorney General and Hillary joined the Rose Law Firm as an attorney. Partners at the firm included Webster Hubbell, who eventually served in the U.S. Justice Department as Associate Attorney General during the Clinton Administration, and Vincent Foster, Jr..


In 1978 Bill Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas and Hillary Clinton became First Lady



 
d3faultu3r
10.04.04 (3:56 am)   [edit]



Wireless Networking

Posted by CowboyNealon Sat Oct 18, '03 12:29 PM
from the living-breathing-antennas dept.
Roland Piquepaille writes "In 'Human Body Network Gets Fast,' Technology Research News tells us that NTT Docomo researchers in Japan have created a 10-Mbit/second indoor network by using human bodies as Ethernet cables. 'The network, dubbed ElectAura-Net, is wireless, but instead of using radio waves, infrared light, or microwaves to transmit information it uses a combination of the electric field that emanates from humans and a similar field emanating from special floor tiles.' ElectAura-Net is faster than the Bluetooth radio wave system and provides a solution for indoor networks. The researchers think that this is a solution for "ubiquitous" communication, using GPS outdoor and our bodies indoor. This summary contains more details."


Real Estate Investment


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